Recent Publications


  • Baker-Eck, B., BULL, R., & Walsh, D.  (In press). Investigative empathy: Five types of cognitive empathy in a field study of investigative interviews with suspects of sexual offences.  Investigative Interviewing: Research and Practice.
  • Zeng, F., Huang, C-Y., & BULL, R.  (In press).   Police interview of suspects in China: Developments and analyses.  International Journal of Police Science and Management.
  • BULL, R., & Milne, R. (2020).  Recommendations for collecting event memory evidence.  In J. Pozzulo, et al. (Eds.) Memory and sexual misconduct: Psychological research for criminal justice. New York: Routledge.
  • BULL, R., & Baker-Eck, B. (2020).  Obtaining from suspects valid discourse ‘PEACE’-fully: What role for rapport and empathy?  In M. Mason and F. Rock (Eds.) The discourse of police interviews. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Baker-Eck, B., BULL, R., & Walsh, D. (In press). Investigative empathy: A strength scale of empathy based on European police perspectives.   Psychiatry, Psychology and Law.
  • Almansoori, R., Milne, R., & BULL, R.  (In press). Exploring investigative interviewing: A Dubai perspective.  International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice.
  • Waterhouse, G., Ridley, A., BULL, R., & Wilcock, R.  (In press).  A study space analysis for multiple interviewing of child witnesses.  Child Abuse Review.
  • BULL, R. (2019).  Roar or PEACE: Is it a tall story?  In R. Bull and I. Blandon-Gitlin (Eds.) International handbook of legal and investigative psychology.  London: Routledge. 
  • BULL, R.  (2019). Credible accounts: What they are and how to obtain them.  Linguistics and the Human Sciences, 12, 166-176.
  • BULL, R. (2019). Investigating the truth: Selected works of Ray Bull.  London: Routledge.
  • BULL, R., & Griffiths, A. (2019). Advocating the ‘PEACE’ method: Will it make people cross? In P. Cooper and L. Hunting (Eds.) Access to justice for vulnerable people.  London: Wildy.
  • BULL, R, Paulo, R., & Albuquerque, P. (2019). The impact of the cognitive interview in the UK and recent research in Portugal.  In J. Dickinson, et al. (Eds.) Evidence-based investigative interviewing: Applying Cognitive Principles. Abingdon: Routledge.
  • BULL, R., & Rachlew, A.  (2019). Investigative interviewing: From England to Norway and  beyond.  In S. Barela, et al. (Eds.) Interrogation and torture: Research on efficacy, and its integration with morality and legality.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • BULL, R., van der Burgh, M., & Dando, C.  (2019). Verbal cues fostering perceptions of credibility and truth/lie detection.  In T. Docan-Morgan (Ed.) The Palgrave handbook of deceptive communication. New York: Palgrave.
  • Cleary, H., & BULL, R.  (2019).  Jail inmates’ perspectives on police interrogation.  Psychology, Crime and Law, 25, 157-170.
  • Cooper, P., Dando, C., Ormerod, T., Mattison, M., Marchant, R. Milne, R., & BULL, R.  (2019).  One step forward and two steps back? The “20 Principles” for vulnerable witness questioning and the lack of an evidence-based approach to witness evidence. International Journal of Evidence and Proof, 22, 392-410. 
  • Paulo, R., BULL, R., & Albuquerque, P.  (2019). Witnesses’ verbal evaluation of certainty and uncertainty during investigative interviews: Relationship with report accuracy.  Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 34, 341-350.
  • BULL, R. (2018). PEACE‐ful interviewing/interrogation: What research can tell us. In K. Shigemasu (Ed.) Diversity in harmony – Insights from psychology. New York: Wiley.
  • Kim, J., Walsh, D., BULL, R., & Bergstrom, H. (2018). Planning ahead? An exploratory study of South Korean investigators’ beliefs about their planning for investigative interviews of suspects.  Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 33, 158-174.
  • Leahy-Harland, S., & BULL, R.  (2017). Police strategies and suspect responses in real-life serious crime interviews.  Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 32, 138-151.
  • Minhas, R., Walsh, D., & BULL, R. (2017). An exploration of the perceptions of real-life suspects from the Asian Community relating to police interviewing practices in England. Journal of Policing, Intelligence, and Counter Terrorism, 18, 132-145.ces in England
  • Paulo, R., Albuquerque, P., Vitorino, F., & BULL, R. (2017).  Enhancing the cognitive interview with an alternative procedure to witness-compatible questioning: category clustering recall.  Psychology, Crime and Law, 10, 967-982.
  • Sleath E., & BULL, R. (2017). Police perceptions of rape victims and the impact on case decision making: A systematic review.  Aggression and Violent Behavior, 34, 102-112.
  • Areh, I., Walsh, D., & BULL, R.  (2016).  Police interrogation practice in Slovenia. Psychology, Crime & Law, 22, 405-419.
  • Davies, G., BULL, R., & Milne, R.  (2016). Analysing and improving the testimony of vulnerable witnesses interviewed under the ‘Achieving best evidence’ protocol.  In  P. Radcliffe, et al. (Eds.) Witness testimony in sexual cases. Investigation, law and procedure. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Milne, R., & BULL, R.  (2016). Witness interviews and crime investigation.  In D. Groome & M. Eysenck (Eds.) An introduction to applied cognitive psychology.  Oxon: Routledge.
  • Paulo, R., Albuquerque, P. B., & BULL, R. (2016).  Improving the enhanced cognitive interview with a new interview strategy: Category clustering recall.  Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30, 775–784.
  • Paulo, R., Albuquerque, P. B., & BULL, R. (2016).  The Enhanced Cognitive Interview: Expressions of uncertainty, motivation and its relation with report accuracy.  Psychology, Crime and Law, 22, 366-381.
  • Walsh, D., BULL, R., & Milne, R.  (2016). One way or another? Criminal investigators’ beliefs regarding the disclosure of evidence in interviews with suspects in England and Wales.  Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 31, 127-140.
  • Waterhouse, G., Ridley, A., BULL, R., La Rooy, D., & Wilcock, R.  (2016). Dynamics of repeated interviews with children.  Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30, 713-721.
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